Xinyang City, called Yiyang, Shenzhou, Guangzhou or Shencheng in ancient times, is a prefecture-level city of Henan Province, and is known as capital of tea. Located in the southernmost part of Henan Province, connecting Anhui in the east and Hubei in the west and south, it is a thoroughfare of the three provinces and also a strategic area among the Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Yellow River and Han River and Huhei-Henan-Anhui regional central city. The whole city covers an area of 18,900 square kilometers, and has a total population of 8.5896 million. It governs 8 counties and 2 districts, 6 management districts and development areas. Xinyang is an excellent tourist city in China, the happiest city in China, “China Top 10 Livable City” (selected for three times running), a national ecological demonstration city and a national garden city.
Xinyang is located at 31°46′ — 31°52′ N and 114°01′ — 114°06′ E. In terms of terrain, it is higher in the south than in the north and the hills alternate with plains. The western part and southern part are southern Henan Mountain area consisting of Tongbai Mountain and Dabie Mountain and it covers an area of nearly 7000 square kilometers, accounting for 37.1% of the total area of the whole city. The two mountains are linked end-to-end, forming a whole, and stretch on the border of Henan and Hubei; and they are the watershed of the Yangtze River Basin and Huaihe River Basin.
Xinyang enjoys convenient transportation. Jingguang Railway, Jingjiu Railway, Jingxi Railway, Jinggangao Expressway, Hushan Expressway, Daguang Expressway, No. 106 National Highway, No. 107 National Highway, No. 312 National Highway and Jingguang High-speed Railway form several gold crosses; and the shipping on Huaihe River makes Xinyang have the largest inland estuary in Henan. Besides, the Mingguang Airport under construction and Huangchuan Logistics Airport in the planning, as well as the developed three-dimensional transportation, make it become a real national comprehensive transportation and modern logistics hub.
In Xinyang, four railways – Jingguang Railway, Jingjiu Railway, Ningxi Railway and Jingguang High-speed Railway pass around. In addition, there are also three railways in the planning – Jingjiu Passenger Dedicated Railway, Henghuang Railway and Ningxi High-Speed Railway.
Highways: The total distance of all highways in Xinyang reaches 7660km; the highway density is 40.5km per 100 square kilometers; the total distance of arterial highways is 1457.875km.
Xinyang has a sea port – Huaibin Yinma Port, which is the first largest inland port in Henan.
Xinyang crosses Huaihe River, is located on the geographic dividing line between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone in China (Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River) and enjoys a transitional climate from subtropical climate to warm temperate climate. Such transitional climate leads to the difference in natural landscape between the south and north of Huaihe River: in the south of Huaihe River, there are beautiful mountains and clear waters, a lot of paddy fields, abundant rice and fish, like the scenery of south of the Yangtze River; but in the north of Huaihe River, there is boundless plains, rich in wheat, food grains and cotton, showing the dense culture of North China.
In Xinyang, the annual precipitation is around 1300mm; the total annual average water resources are 9 billion m3; the water resources per capita are 1230m3, 3.2 times of that of Henan province. In the whole city, there are 5 large reservoirs, 13 medium-sized reservoirs and 866 small reservoirs, with a total storage capacity of 4.052 billion m3, and the total water resources account for 22% of that of Henan Province. Besides, Xinyang has such special water resources as hot spring and mineral spring water.
Xinyang has many rivers, which are branches of two water systems – the Yangtze River or Huaihe River. The area of Huaihe Basin accounts for 98.2% of the total area of the whole city while the area of the Yangtze River only accounts for 1.8%.
Xinyang is a complicated topography area and various geomorphic types, including mountain land, hills, mounds, plains and low-lying land, and distribute in a ladder-like shape from south to north, so it has the comprehensive development advantage. In the southern and western part, there are mainly Dabie Mountain and Tongbai Mountain land, accounting for 36.9% of the area of the whole city; the central part is mainly hills and mounds, accounting for 38.5%; the northern part is mainly the plains, accounting for 17.0%; and the area along the Huaihe River is mainly the low-lying land, accounting for 7.6%.
The soils in Xinyang can be divided into 11 great soil groups – yellow cinnamon soil, yellow brown soil, brown soil, purple soil, red clay, stony soil, skeleton soil, moisture soil, Shajiang black soil, paddy soil and vegetable garden soil, 20 soil sub-groups, 42 soil genuses and 138 soil species. The horizontal distributions are corresponding to the geomorphic types, and from south to north, the soils are yellow brown soil (distributing in the medium and low mountain area; it is the same for stony soil and skeleton soil), moisture soil (centrally distributing in the low-lying lands along the Huaihe River and the plains), Shajiang black soil (mainly distributing in the plains in north of the Huaihe River). The paddy soil, yellow cinnamon soil, yellow brown soil and stony soil take up large areas, accounting for 40.65%, 17.56%, 11.66% and 10.34% of the total area of the city.